It is the ability and the act to produce sound based on the place and manner in which you produce it. The precise movement of the articulators (lips, tongue, teeth, soft palate, hard palate, larynx, and epiglottis) and the place of obstruction in air flow in the vocal tract produces a consonant sound and continuous airflow produces vowels. Imprecise articulatory movement results in reduced speech intelligibility.


It is the study of sound patterns specific to a language – where the articulators are intact for a string of spontaneous phonemic (sounds) productions in various word positions at the phrase, sentence and conversational level. A break in this pattern impacts a child’s speech intelligibility. For example, a child’s precise articulatory movement can produce /p/ in the beginning of a word [/pat/], however, is unable to produce /p/ in the middle [/tapped/] or at the end of a word [/tap/].